Jeremiah describes Israel in the Great Tribulation (v. 3-8) and in “the latter days” (v. 24). The latter half of the chapter speaks of a time when Israel will be completely protected from all her enemies and worshipping in peace in the land after her return from captivity. This has a partial fulfilment in Israel’s return from Babylonian captivity in 536 BC, and when the state of Israel was re-established in 1948. The promises listed here will find their complete fulfilment in the Millennial Kingdom.
Israel’s end-time salvation and restoration that began in Jeremiah 30 are described. Of particular importance is God’s reference to the restoration after the chastisement of “Ephraim”. This speaks of the ten northern tribes that had been lost and separated from Israel for over 100 years by the time of Jeremiah’s ministry. God will save the remnant of Israel, have mercy on the tribes that were scattered, and bring great blessing and prosperity to all of Israel when her people are re-unified. This happens when all Israel receives the “new covenant” (vv. 31-34) that was established through the death and resurrection of Jesus.
The fullness of God’s covenant promises will be manifest in the Millennial Kingdom when Israel and Judah are honoured before all nations.
The fall of Babylon will have its ultimate fulfilment during the time of the Second Coming. The fall of Babylon in 539 BC, at the hands of the Persian army, was a partial fulfilment in Jeremiah 50. However, many of the specific details of this prophecy were not fulfilled at that time. John quoted Jeremiah 51, three times in Revelation 18 in reference to the future judgment of Babylon. Thus, in both passages, there are many elements of the prophetic proclamation that point to a future scenario in which Babylon is violently opposed and harshly judged by the Lord.